基于PLC大棚温湿自动控制系统

发布于:2021-11-29 07:14:06

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in a bility to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to ens ure smooth processe s, res ponsi bilities i n pla ce; to f urther stre ngthe n interna l controls , play a control post indepe ndent overs ight role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party re sponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools detect potential ma nagement, streamli ne, sta ndar dize relat ed tra nsacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in accorda nce with law. D eepe ning t he information manageme nt to e nsure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, a chieve d information resource s shared; to expand Portal system applicati on of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nistic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atm osphere; strengthe ning love hel ped tr apped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch em ployees l ife; strengtheni ng healt h and labour pr otecti on, organizati on career healt h medi cal, control career agai nst; conti nue s to impleme ntation psychol ogical war ning preventi on system, training empl oyees he alth of character, a nd stable of mood a nd e nterpri sing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengt hene d business plans management, will busi ness busines s pla ns cover to all lev el, ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk preve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , en hance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, ful l play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

2

of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of effectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal system . We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic safety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c and full of

We will conti nue to im prove the com pany's i nternal contr ol system, and steady im provement i n ability to ma nage and control , optimiz e busine ss pr oce sses , to ensure sm oot h process es, res ponsi bilities i n pla ce; t o further stre ngthe n internal controls , play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; to actively make use of internal audit tool s dete ct pote ntial manageme nt, streamline , standardize relat e d transa ctions, stre ngthe ning operati ons i n accor dance with law. Deepeni ng the informati on management to e nsure f ull communicati on "zero resistance".

To constantly perfect ERP, a nd BFS++, and PI, and MIS, a nd SCM, information system ba sed constructi on, full integration information system, achieved i nformation resources share d; to expand Portal system a ppli cation of breadt h and de pth, play information system on enterprise of As sistant rol e; to perfect daily r un mainte na nce operati on of records, prom ote problem reas ons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP, a nd S CM, technology

appli cation of training , improve em ployee s applicati on i nformation system of capacity and level. Huma nistic care to e ns ure "zero."

To strengtheni ng Huma nities care, conti nues t o foster company wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of cult ure atmos phere; stre ngthening lov e hel ped tra ppe d, care difficult employees ; carrie d out style a ctivities, rich empl oyees life; strengtheni ng healt h and labour protect i on, organizati on career health me dical, control career against; continues t o impleme ntation psychol ogical w arni ng preventi on syst em, training employee s hea lth of characte r, and stable of mood and enter prisi ng of attitude, created frie ndly fraternity of H umanitie s envir onment. To strengthe n risk ma nagement, e ns ure that the busine ss of "zero risk". To strengt hene d busi ness plans manageme nt, will busi nes s busi ness plans cover to all level , ensure the business can control in contr ol; to close concern financia l, and coal ele ctric li nkage, a nd e nergy-saving s che duli ng, national policy tre nds, strengtheni ng track, a ctive shoul d; to im plementati on State-owned as sets

method, furt her s pecificati on busines s financial manag ement; to perfect risk tube control system, achieved risk re cog nition, and measure , and a sses sment, a nd re port, a nd control fee dba ck of cl ose d ring manageme nt, improve ri sk pre venti on capa city.

To further standar dize tradi ng, and stri ve to achieve "a ccording to la w, sta ndar dize a nd fair." Innovation of performa nce ma nagement, to e ns ure that potential em ployees "zer o fly". To strengt hen performance manageme nt, proces s control, e nha nce employe e evaluati on and levels of effective communication to impr ove performa nce management. To further qua ntify and refine em ployee standar ds .. . Work, ful l play part y, and branch, a nd members in "five type Enter prise" constr ucti on in t he of core role, a nd fighti ng fortress role a nd pioneer model role ; to continues t o strengthening "four g ood" leaders hip construction, f ull pl ay levels cadre s in enter prise development i n the

毕业论文中文摘要

摘要:

基于 plc 大棚温湿自动控制系统

讨论了在温室控制中引入 PLC 技术构成分布式控制系统的方法,详细介绍了系 统的特点、组成、硬件设计、实时动态监控系统及通信问题。分布式的控*峁, 使各子系统相对独立,管理与控制功能分开,易于实现群控化管理,提高了系统的 可靠性,且易于扩展。系统成本低廉,性能稳定,通用性好,符合中国国情,具有广泛 的应用前景。

关键词: 温室大棚 PLC 集散控制 温湿控制

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

development opportunities, we mor e exciting fight more s pirited.

1
Employees, let us toget her acr oss 2 013 full of challe nges a nd opportunities, to create a green, l ow-cost operation, full of huma ne care of a world -cla ss power ge neration company and work hard! The occasi on of the S pring Fe stival, my sincere wi sh that y ou a nd the families of the staff in the ne w year, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of confide nce . Future

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze relat ed transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nist ic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otect ion, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on syst em, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nag ement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk pre ve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, f ull play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

毕业论文外文摘要

Title

Design the agriculture temperature and

humidity glasshouse control system with the

programmable logic controller

Abstract:
The method of distributed control system composed by PLC technology in glasshouse control is introduced in this paper. It gives a detailed introduction to the characteristics, constitutes,software and hardware design , real - time dynamic surveillance and communication of the system.The distributed control structure makes all sub - systems independent relatively , separates the management and control function , and easy to realize the swarm control management , greatly improves the reliability and expandable of the system. It has the characacters of low cost , stable function , wide adoptability , etc , which matches the conditions of China and has charming application foreground.

Keywords: Glasshouse agriculture; PLC; Distributed control system;Swarm control management

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

1
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze relat ed transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nist ic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otect ion, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on syst em, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nag ement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk pre ve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, f ull play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

目次
1 引言………………………………………………………………………… 1 1.1 研究背景…………………………………………………………………… 1 1.2 研究的目的及意义……………………………………………………………2 2 系统概述…………………………………………………………………………… 2 2.1 系统设计任务……………………………………………………………… 2 2.2 系统总体设计……………………………………………………………… 2 2.3 系统工作原理……………………………………………………………… 7 2.4 温湿度传感器……………………………………………………………… 8 3 系统硬件设计………………………………………………………………… 9 3.1 PLC 简介……………………………………………………………………… 9 3.2 总线简介…………………………………………………………………… 9 3.3 电磁阀的简介与安装……………………………………………………… 10 3.4 湿度传感器………………………………………………………………… 13 3.5 温度传感器……………………………………………………………… 14 3.6 喷灌系统的设计………………………………………………………… 15 结论 ……………………………………………………………………………… 21 参考文献………………………………………………………………………… 22 致谢……………………………………………………………………………24 图 1……………………………………………………………………………………25

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

1
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze relat ed transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nist ic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otect ion, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on syst em, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nag ement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk pre ve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, f ull play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

1 引言

1.1 研究背景

我国的设施园艺绝大部分用于蔬菜生产。80年代以来,温室、大棚蔬菜的种植 面积连年增加。目前的栽培设施中,有国家标准的装配式钢管塑料大棚和玻璃温室仅 占设施栽培面积的少部分,大多数的农村仍然采用自行建造的简单低廉的竹木大小 棚,只能起到一定的保温作用,根本谈不上对温光水气养分等环境条件的调控,抗自 然环境的能力极差。即使那些数量不多的装配式塑料大棚和玻璃温室也缺乏配套的调 控设备和仪器,主要依靠经验和单因子定性调控,设施栽培的智能化程度非常低。
我国设施农业的发展,以超时令、反季节生产的设施园艺作物的发展为主,且发 展迅猛。1997 年设施园艺作物栽培面积达 86.7 万公顷,较 80 年代初期的栽培面积 增长了 128 倍,人均设施蔬菜占有量 1996~1997 年为 33 公斤,较 1980~1981 年人 均设施蔬菜占有量增长了* 164 倍。2001 年,我国设施园艺面积将突破 100 万公顷, 全国设施蔬菜人均占有量将达到 40 公斤。
塑料大棚、中棚及日光温室为我国主要的设施结构类型。其中能充分利用太阳光 热资源、节约燃煤、减少环境污染的日光温室为我国所特有。1997 年我国日光温室 面 积已超过* 16.7 万公顷。由农业部联合有关部门试验推广的新一代节能型日光温 室,每年每亩可节约燃煤约 20 吨。采用单层薄膜或双层冲气薄膜、PC 板、玻璃为覆 盖材料 的大型现代化连栋温室,具有土地利用率高、环境控制自动化程度高和便于 机械化操作等特点,自 1995 年以来,呈现出迅猛发展之势,目前全国共有大型温室 面积 200 公顷,其中自日本、荷兰、以色列、美国等国家引进的温室面积达 140 公 顷。
我国设施农业目前还存在着诸如土地利用率低、盲目引进温室、设施结构不合理、 能源浪费严重、运营管理费用高、管理技术水*低、劳动生产率低及单位面积产量低 等诸多问题,但随着社会的进步和科学的发展,我国设施农业的发展将向着地域化、 节能化、专业化发展,向着高科技、自动化、机械化、规模化、产业化的工厂型农业 发展,为社会提供更加丰富的无污染、安全、优质的绿色健康食品。

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

1
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze related transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full commu nicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nistic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otection, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on system, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nagement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n finan cial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk preve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, full play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

1.2 研究的目的及意义

温室的作用是用来改变植物的生长环境 ,避免外界四季变化和恶劣气候对作物 生长的不利影响 ,为植物生长创造适宜的良好条件。温室一般以采光和覆盖材料作为 主要结构材料 ,它可以在冬季或其他不适宜植物露地生长的季节栽培植物 ,从而达 到对农作物调节产期、促进生长发育、防治病虫害及提高产量的目的。温室环境指的 是作物在地面上的生长空间 ,它是由光照、温度、湿度、二氧化碳浓度等因素构成的。 温室控制主要是控制温室内的温度、湿度、通风与光照。
虽然有些温室也安装有各种加热、加湿、通风和降温的设备 ,但其主要操作大多 仍是由人工来完成的当温室面积较大或数量较多时 ,操作人员的劳动强度很大 ,而 且也无法达到对温湿度的准确控制。本文介绍一种基于 PLC 和数字式温湿度传感器的 温室控制系统。该系统实现了室内温湿度的自动测量和调节 ,大大降低了操作人员的 劳动强度,采用喷灌系统作为改变温室湿度环境的方法节约了水资源。充分利用太阳 能节约了能源。

2 系统概述

2.1 系统设计任务

温室的作用是用来改变植物的生长环境 ,避免外界四季变化和恶劣气候对作物 生长的不利影响 ,为植物生长创造适宜的良好条件。温室一般以采光和覆盖材料作为 主要结构材料 ,它可以在冬季或其他不适宜植物露地生长的季节栽培植物 ,从而达 到对农作物调节产期、促进生长发育、防治病虫害及提高产量的目的。温室环境指的 是作物在地面上的生长空间 ,它是由光照、温度、湿度、二氧化碳浓度等因素构成的。 温室控制主要是控制温室内的温度、湿度、通风与光照。灌溉系统采用电磁阀控制的 喷灌系统的方式,节约了水源,温度调节主要有遮阴帘风机的动作来解决。
2.2 系统总体设计

2.2.1 plc 的选择 由于德国 SIEMENS 系列产品具有功能强大、可靠灵活等特点 ,从系统设计的整
体性、一致性出发 ,考虑到经济性、功能性等各方面的原因 ,我们选用西门子公司的 产品 ,以最优的性能/价格比进行系统的配置。本系统可以实现各个子系统的单独调

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of ef fectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal system. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic safety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

2
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c and full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze relat ed transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nist ic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otect ion, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on syst em, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nag ement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk pre ve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, f ull play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

控 ,通过通讯网络由总控室进行统一的管理 ,便于实现群控化控制。系统配置上各个 子系统选择了 SIEMENS 系列的 S7 - 215 PLC,这是因为在 200 系列 PLC 中 ,只有 215 具有 Profibus- DP 口 ,可以联到 Profibus 上进行高速数据传输。S7 - 215 本机 14 个输入点和 10 个输出点 ,内存 13K 字节。扩展模块 EM231 可以实现 3 路模拟量 输入的 A/D 转换 ,EM235 实现 3 路模拟量输入的 A/D 转换 1 路模拟量输出的 D/A 转换 ,可以根据需要方便地进行功能的扩展。另外调整相应系统的硬件设备或者对应 的用户子程序,可以方便地改变对参数的设置。系统通过开关量传感器、模拟量传感 器对温室内的温度、湿度、光照等进行检测。通过 D/A 通道要实现对各种执行和调节 机构的控制,以及各种环境设备的启停和电机等设备的保护。各子系统选用 PLC 的主 机内部带有存储程序的 EPROM,停电后程序不会丢失。总控室选择 S7 - 315 ,它集成 有数据通讯接口 ,可以方便地通过 PROFIBUS - DP 口实现和其他子系统的通信 ,进 行集中管理。在这里通过动态监控画面可以动态地了解各种参数的变化。各个子系统 可以实现独立运行 ,当网络出现意外或其他子系统出现问题也不会引起瘫痪。环境控 制子系统配置硬件原理图如图 2.1 所示。

图 2.1 系统组成框图

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

3
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze related transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full commu nicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nistic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otection, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on system, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nagement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n finan cial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk preve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, full play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

2.2.2 软件和动态监控系统设计 软件部分主要完成对各个子系统的控制 ,并集成有模糊控制算法 ,可以根据参
数设定值达到对环境参数的精确控制 ,能够实现数据采集、数据预处理、通讯和监控 执行机构等功能。动态监控系统的设计是采用西门子的视窗控制中心 —SIMATIC WincCC,它是一种可视化的人机界面 ,可以很容易地结合标准和用户程序生成人 机界面 ,准确地满足实际要求。SIMATIC WinCC 的组成包括计算机(Computer) 、标 签管理(TagManagement) 、数据类型(Data Type)和编辑器(Editor)几个部分。动态 监控系统可以实时检测温室内各种环境参数的瞬时值和动态显示他们的变化趋势 , 同时每隔一定时间间隔对采集值进行存储以提供数据报表 ,同时将其保留在历史数 据库中供作物栽培者日后进行检查。 2.2.3 网络通信系统设计
通信系统实现对整个温室运做的信线,RXD(收) 、TXD(发) 、GND(地) 。选用可 保证波特率在 9 600 bps 时 ,通信距离可达到 112 km。设计采用主从方式管理 ,主 机通过 RS- 232/ RS485 通信接口转换器完成信号之间的转换 ,从机采用 MAX485 接 口可以实现 RS/485 与 TTL 电*的转换。信号通信程序分为初始化、接收和发送三 个部分。本设计中所选 PLC 都是 SIEMENS 的产品 ,本身都集成了 PROFIBUS 接口 , 可以方便可靠的连接成一个现场总线网络。本机主站和从站的分配情况如下: ①在本 系统中选用了带有 Profibus 接口的 S7 - 315 为主站 ,它为每一个站点分配一个地 址 ,在预定的信息周期内与分散的站点交换信息。②本系统中总控室的上位 PC 机属 于第二类主站 ,选用带 PROFIBUS - DP 网卡(CP5611) 接口的工控机。③从站为各个 子系统的 S7 - 215。④PLC 与 PC 之间的通讯 ,二者进行数据交换 ,各站周期性地交 换 1 字节数据。主站发送命令信息 ,从站上通过 DP - RECV(read) ,调用 DP - RECV 功能从主站读取数据并存储到从站 DB11 中 ,然后通过 DP - SEND(write) ,调用 DP SEND 功能存储在 DB11 中的数据写入到主站的输入区。 1 PLC 与上位机的通讯协议
通讯协议包括两方面的内容:一是通讯接口;二是通讯方式。PLC 与上位机一般 采用 RS-232C接口的异步串行通讯方式。CQM1 的 CPU 单元本身带有 RS-232C接口, 可直接使用该端口与上位机进行 RC-232C串行通讯。通讯方式有两种:一种是上位机 始终具有初始传送优先权,所有的通讯均由上位机来启动,CQM1 总是处于被动状态; 另一种是 PLC 具有优先权,命令由 PLC 发送至上位机。笔者设计的监控系统采用的

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of ef fectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal system. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic safety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

4
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c and full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze relat ed transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nist ic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otect ion, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on syst em, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nag ement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk pre ve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, f ull play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

是第一种通讯方式。 PLC 与上位机的数据通讯是以“帧”为单位进行的,帧的格式 如图 2.2 和图 2.3 所示。命令帧由上位机发送给 PLC,响应帧为 PLC 接收到命令 帧后自动向上位机发送的应答信号。

图 2.2 命脉令帧

图 2.3 响应帧
2 通讯过程 通讯开始,先由上位计算机对 PLC 发出一串字符的测试帧命令。在帧的传送格
式中,“@”为起始符;节点号为 PLC 的编号,用于标识和上位机通讯的 PLC,由 PLC 中 DM6648 设定。在这个温室环境检测控制系统中,只有一个下位 PLC,其节点号为 00;标题码为一个 2 字符的命令代码,用来标明帧的功能。例如 RD、WD 分别为读、 写 DM 数据区的标题码 FCS 为一个 2 字符的帧检查次序代码,即从帧起始位@到帧 数据结束(FCS 前)之前的数据进行“异或运算的结果,用来检查帧的传送结果。例 如,计算机发送一命令帧@00RR00?0143 CR,帧中 43 为 FCS 的值,它是由命令帧中 @、0、0、R、R、0、0?1 分别转化为 ASCⅡ码,再转化为 8 位二进制数进行“异或” 运算后转化为十六进制的结果;CR 表示帧结束响应帧中结束代码为“00”,标明通讯 有效。 为充分利用上位机 CPU 的时间,可使上位机与 PLC 并行工作,在上位机等待 PLC 回答信号的同时,使 CPU 处理其它任务或线程。某 PLC 在接到上位机的一个完 整帧以后,首先判断是不是自己的代号,若不是,就不予理睬;若是,就发送呼叫回

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

5
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze related transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full commu nicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nistic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otection, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on system, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nagement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n finan cial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk preve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, full play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

答信号上位机接到回答信号后,与发送测试的数据比较。若两者无误,发出可以进行 数据通讯的信号,转入正常数据通讯;否则,提示用户检查线路重新测试或通讯失败。 3 PC 机串行通讯软件的设计
VisualC++6.0 具有强大的 MFC 类库、强大的图形功能和良好的人机界面,可 以轻松地开发出界面良好的 Windows 标准风格的图形用户界面。 编程时,主要使用 VC++提供的串行通信控件 MS Comm 来实现。首先,利用 MFC APPWizard 创建对话框; 然后,在对话框中创建通信控件,或通过菜单
Project --> Add to Project --> Components and Control 插入即可,再将该控件从工具箱中拉到对话框中。然后,设置合适的 WindowsAPI 函数的接口。也就是设置和监视 MSComm 控件的属性和事件。 在 ClassWizard 中,为新创建的通信,控件定义了成员对象(CMSComm m_Serial)。通 过该对象,便可以对串口属性进行设置。下面是通过设置控件属性对串口进行初始化 的程序: BOOL CSampleDlg:: PortOpen() { BOOL m_Opened; ...... m_Serial.SetCommPort(2); // 指定串口号 m_Serial.SetSettings("4800,N,8,1"); //通信 参数设置 m_Serial.SetInBufferSize(1024); //指定 接收缓冲区大小 m_Serial.SetInBufferCount(0);// 清空接收缓 冲区 m_Serial.InputMode(1); // 设置数据获取方式 m_Serial.SetInputLen(0); // 设置读取方式 m_Opened=m_Serail.SetPortOpen(1);//打开指定 的串口
return m_Opened; }

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of ef fectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal system. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic safety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

6
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c and full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze relat ed transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nist ic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otect ion, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on syst em, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nag ement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk pre ve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, f ull play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

打开所需串口后,需要考虑串口通信的时机。在接收或发送数据过程中,可能需 要监视并响应一些事件和错误,所以事件驱动是处理串行端口交互作用的一种非常有 效的方法。使用 OnComm 事件和 Com mEvent 属性捕捉并检查通讯事件和错误的值。 发生通讯事件或错误时,将触发 OnComm 事件,CommEvent 属性的值将被改变,应用 程序检查 CommEvent 属性值并做出相应的反应。在程序中用 ClassWiz ard 为 CMSComm 控件添加 OnComm 消息处理函数:
void CSampleDlg::OnComm() { switch(m_Serial.GetCommEvent())
{ case 2:// 串行口数据接收,处理;
} }

2.3 系统的工作原理
系统由温湿度传感器、PLC 系统 (含键盘和液晶显示 )、加热设备和加湿设备几 部分组成。整个系统的工作原理图如图 2.4 所示。

图 2.4 系统工作原理图
该温室控制系统是利用 PLC 把传感器采集的有关参数 (如温度、湿度 )转换为 数字信号,并把这些数据暂存起来 ,与给定值进行比较 ,经一定的控制算法后 ,给出 相应的控制信号进行控制。系统还可以经过串行通信接口将数据送至上位机 ,从而完 成数据管理、智能决策、历史资料统计分析等更为强大的功能 ,并可以对数据进行显 示、编辑、存储及打印输出。传感器把与生物有关的参量 (温度、湿度等 )转换为电

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

7
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze related transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full commu nicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nistic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otection, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on system, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nagement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n finan cial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk preve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, full play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

压信号 ,经运算放大器组成的信号处理电路变换成压频转换器 (V/F)需要的电压信 号。其中温度传感器的输出电流与绝对温度成正比 ,且具有温度响应快、线性度好及 高阻抗电流输出等特点 ,适于长距离传输 ,可把 - 5~55 ℃的温度转换成 1~4 V 的电压;测湿调理电路是将湿度传感器测试到的 10 %~90 %的相对湿度转换成 4~20 mA 的电流输出信号。温室控制系统的执行机构包括风机、气泵、水帘、遮阴帘、电 磁阀等设备。系统工作时 , PLC 通过温湿度传感器来测量温室内的温湿度并与设定 值相比较 ,如果温室内的温度或湿度超出了设定范围的上下限值 , PLC 就输出指令 , 控*油ㄏ嘤Φ纳璞;当温室的温度和湿度都在范围内时 , PLC 就输出指令 ,切断设 备的电源。系统的工作流程见图 2。

图 2.5 系统工作流程图
2.4 温湿度传感器
温湿度传感器采用芬兰维萨拉公司生产的温湿度传感器 ,型号是 HMW 40Y。此传 感器具有测量精度高、响应时间短、对环境要求低、易于安装等特点。其主要性能指 标如下:
湿度: 10 %~90 %RH

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of ef fectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal system. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic safety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

8
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c and full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze relat ed transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nist ic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otect ion, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on syst em, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nag ement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk pre ve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, f ull play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

温度: - 5~55 ℃ 测量精度: ±3 %RH/ ±0. 3 ℃ 输出信号: 4~20 mA

3. 系统的硬件设计
3.1 PLC 简介
S7-200 系列 PLC 可以满足多样化的控制要求,由于具有紧凑的设计,良好的扩 展性,低廉的价格以及强大的指令系统,使得可以*乎完美的满足小规模控制要求。 S7200 PLC 是德国西门子公司生产的一种超小型 PLC。 3.1.1 S7-200 系列 PLC 系统结构
1 基本单元 基本单元有时又称 CPU 模块,也有时成主机或本机,它包括 CPU,存储器,基本 输入输出点和电源等,时 PLC 的主要部分。 2 扩展单元 当主机 I/O 数量不能满足控制系统的要求时,用户可以根据需要扩展各种 I/O 模块,所能连接的扩展单元数量和实际所能使用的 I/O 点数是有多种因素共同决定 的。 3 特殊功能模块 当需要完成某些特殊功能的控制任务时,可与 s7-200 主机相联,以完成某种特 殊的控制任务的一种装置。 4 相关设备 主要有编程设备、人机操作界面和网络设备等。 5 工业软件 工业软件是为了更好地管理和使用这些设备而开发的与之相配套的程序,它主要 由标准工具、运行软件、和人机接口等几大类构成。
3.2 总线简介
3.2.1 总线定义:

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

9
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze related transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full commu nicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nistic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otection, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on system, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nagement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n finan cial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk preve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, full play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

是连接智能现场设备和自动化系统的全数字、双向、多站的通信系统。主要解决 工业现场的智能化仪器仪表、控制器、执行机构等现场设备间的数字通信以及这些现 场控制设备和高级控制系统之间的信息传递问题 。
多种现场总线并存 目前世界上存在着大约四十余种现场总线,如法国的 FIP,英国的 ERA,德国西 门子公司 Siemens 的 ProfiBus,挪威的 FINT,Echelon 公司的 LONWorks, PhenixContact 公司的 InterBus,RoberBosch 公司的 CAN,Rosemounr 公司的 HART, CarloGarazzi 公司的 Dupline,丹麦 ProcessData 公司的 P-net,PeterHans 公司的 F-Mux,以及 ASI(ActraturSensorInterface),MODBus,SDS,Arcnet,国际标准组 织-基金会现场总线 FF:FieldBusFoundation,WorldFIP,BitBus,美国的 DeviceNet 与 ControlNet 等等。这些现场总线大都用于过程自动化、医药领域、加工制造、交 通运输、国防、航天、农业和楼宇等领域,大概不到十种的总线占有80%左右的市 场。 3.2.2 PROFIBUS 总线 PROFIBUS 是德国标准(DIN19245)和欧洲标准(EN50170)的现场总线标准。由 PROFIBUS--DP、PROFIBUS-FMS、PROFIBUS-PA 系列组成。DP 用于分散外设间高速数 据传输,适用于加工自动化领域。FMS 适用于纺织、楼宇自动化、可编程控制器、低 压开关等。PA 用于过程自动化的总线类型,服从 IEC1158-2标准。PROFIBUS 支持 主-从系统、纯主站系统、多主多从混合系统等几种传输方式。PROFIBUS 的传输速率 为 9.6Kbit/s 至 12Mbit/s,最大传输距离在 9.6Kbit/s 下为 1200m,在 12Mbit/s 小 为 200m,可采用中继器延长至 10km,传输介质为双绞线或者光缆,最多可挂接 127 个站点。

3.3 电磁阀的简介与安装

3.3.1 电磁阀简介 电磁阀是用来控制流体的方向的自动化基础元件,属于执行器;通常用于机械控
制和工业阀门上面,对介质方向进行控制,从而达到对阀门开关的控制。 电磁阀 常与空气过滤器,回信器相连接叫气动三联件
工作原理

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of ef fectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal system. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic safety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

10
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c and full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze relat ed transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nist ic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otect ion, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on syst em, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nag ement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk pre ve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, f ull play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

电磁阀里有密闭的腔,在不同位置开有通孔,每个孔都通向不同的油管,腔中间 是阀,两面是两块电磁铁,哪面的磁铁线圈通电阀体就会被吸引到哪边,通过控制阀 体的移动来档住或漏出不同的排油的孔,而进油孔是常开的,液压油就会进入不同的 排油管,然后通过油的压力来推动油缸的活塞,活塞又带动活塞杆,活塞竿带动机械 装置动。这样通过控制电磁铁的电流就控制了机械运动。 3.3.2 电磁阀在选型时的注意事项
电磁阀的选型 电磁阀选型首先应该依次遵循安全性,可靠性,适用性,经济性四大原则,其次 是根据六个方面的现场工况(即管道参数、流体参数、压力参数、电气参数、动作方 式、特殊要求进行选择)。 选型依据: 一、根据管道参数选择电磁阀的:通径规格(即 DN)、接口方式 1、按照现场管道内径尺寸或流量要求来确定通径(DN)尺寸。 2、接口方式,一般>DN50 要选择法兰接口,≤DN50 则可根据用户需要自由选择。 二、根据流体参数选择电磁阀的:材质、温度组 1、腐蚀性流体:宜选用耐腐蚀电磁阀和全不锈钢;食用超净流体:宜选用食品 级不锈钢材质电磁阀。 2、高温流体:要选择采用耐高温的电工材料和密封材料制造的电磁阀,而且要 选择活塞式结构类型的。 3、流体状态:大至有气态,液态或混合状态,特别是口径大于 DN25 订货时一定 要区分开来。 4、流体粘度:通常在 50cSt 以下可任意选择,若超过此值,则要选用高粘度电 磁阀。 三、根据压力参数选择电磁阀的:原理和结构品种 1、公称压力:这个参数与其它通用阀门的含义是一样的,是根据管道公称压力 来定。 2、工作压力:如果工作压力低则必须选用直动或分步直动式原理;最低工作压 差在 0.04Mpa 以上时直动式、分步直动式、先导式均可选用。 四、电气选择:电压规格应尽量优先选用 AC220V、DC24 较为方便。 五、根据持续工作时间长短来选择:常闭、常开、或可持续通电

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

11
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze related transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full commu nicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nistic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otection, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on system, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nagement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n finan cial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk preve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, full play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

2、要是开启的时间短或开和关的时间不多时,则选常闭型。 3、但是有些用于安全保护的工况,如炉、窑火焰监测,则不能选常开的,应选 可长期通电型。 六、根据环境要求选择辅助功能:防爆、止回、手动、防水雾、水淋、潜水 1、爆炸性环境:必须选用相应防爆等级的电磁阀(我公司现有:d II BT4、d II CT5、Ex m I/II T4) 。 2、当管内流体有倒流现象时,可选择我公司 OK71-N、OK72-N 系列带止回功能电 磁阀。 3、当需要对电磁阀进行现场人工操作时,可选择我公司 OK71-S、OK72-S 系列带 手动功能电磁阀。 4、露天安装或粉尘多场合应选用防水,防尘品种(防护等级在 IP54 以上)。 5、用于喷泉必须采用潜水型电磁阀(防护等级在 IP68 以上)。 1、当电磁阀需要长时间开启,并且持续的时间多余关闭的时间应选用常开型。 3.3.3 安装注意事项如下: 1、安装时应注意阀体上箭头应与介质流向一致。不可装在有直接滴水或溅水的 地方。电磁阀应垂直向*沧啊 2、电磁阀应保证在电源电压为额定电压的 15%-10%波动范围内正常工作。 3、电磁阀安装后,管道中不得有反向压差。并需通电数次,使之适温后方可正 式投入使用。 4、磁阀安装前应彻底清洗管道。通入的介质应无杂质。阀前装过滤器。 5、当电磁阀发生故障或清洗时,为保证系统继续运行,应安装旁路装置。 故障与排除 一、电磁阀通电后不工作 检查电源接线是否不良→重新接线和接插件的连接 检查电源电压是否在±工作范围-→调致正常位置范围 线圈是否脱焊→重新焊接 线圈短路→更换线圈 工作压差是否不合适→调整压差→或更换相称的电磁阀 流体温度过高→更换相称的电磁阀

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of ef fectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal system. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic safety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

12
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c and full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze relat ed transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nist ic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otect ion, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on syst em, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nag ement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk pre ve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, f ull play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

有杂质使电磁阀的主阀芯和动铁芯卡死→进行清洗,如有密封损坏应更换密封并 安装过滤器
液体粘度太大,频率太高和寿命已到→更换产品 二、电磁阀不能关闭 主阀芯或铁动芯的密封件已损坏→更换密封件流体温度、粘度是否过高→更换对 口的电磁阀有杂质进入电磁阀产阀芯或动铁芯→进行清洗弹簧寿命已到或变形→更 换节流孔*衡孔堵塞→及时清洗工作频率太高或寿命已到→改选产品或更新产品 三、其它情况 内泄漏→检查密封件是否损坏,弹簧是否装配不良 泄漏→连接处松动或密封件已坏→紧螺丝或更换密封件 通电时有噪声→头子上坚固件松动,拧紧。电压波动不在允许范围内,调整好电 压。铁芯吸合面杂质或不*,及时清洗或更换。

3.4 湿度传感器

1.选择测量范围 和测量重量、温度一样,选择湿度传感器首先要确定测量范围。除了气象、科研 部门外,搞温、湿度测控的一般不需要全湿程(0-100%RH)测量。在当今的信息时代, 传感器技术与计算机技术、自动控制拄术紧密结合着。测量的目的在于控制,测量范 围与控制范围合称使用范围。当然,对不需要搞测控系统的应用者来说,直接选择通 用型湿度仪就可以了。用户根据需要向传感器生产厂提出测量范围,生产厂优先保证 用户在使用范围内传感器的性能稳定一致,求得合理的性能价格比,对双方来讲是一 件相得益彰的事情。 2、选择测量精度 和测量范围一样,测量精度同是传感器最重要的指标。每提高—个百分点.对传 感器来说就是上一个台阶,甚至是上一个档次。因为要达到不同的精度,其制造成本 相差很大,售价也相差甚远。例如进口的 1 只廉价的湿度传感器只有几美元,而 1 只供标定用的全湿程湿度传感器要几百美元,相差*百倍。所以使用者一定要量体裁 衣,不宜盲目追求“高、精、尖”。 3、考虑时漂和温漂

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

13
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze related transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full commu nicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nistic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otection, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on system, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nagement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n finan cial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk preve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, full play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

几乎所有的传感器都存在时漂和温漂。由于湿度传感器必须和大气中的水汽相接 触,所以不能密封。这就决定了它的稳定性和寿命是有限的。一般情况下,生产厂商 会标明 1 次标定的有效使用时间为 1 年或 2 年,到期负责重新标定。请使用者在选择 传感器时考虑好日后重新标定的渠道,不要贪图便宜或迷信洋货而忽略了售后服务问 属。
选择湿度传感器要考虑应用场合的温度变化范围,看所选传感器在指定温度下能 否正常工作,温漂是否超出设计指标。要提醒使用者注意的是:电容式湿度传感器的 温度系数α是个变量,它随使用温度、湿度范围而异。这是因为水和高分子聚合物的 介电系数随温度的改变是不同步的,而温度系数α又主要取决于水和感湿材料的介电 系数,所以电容式湿敏元件的温度系数并非常数。电容式湿度传感器在常温、中湿段 的温度系数最小,5-25℃时,中低湿段的温漂可忽略不计。但在高温高湿区或负温高 湿区使用时,就一定要考虑温漂的影响,进行必要的补偿或订正。
4、其它注意事项 湿度传感器是非密封性的,为保护测量的准确度和稳定性,应尽量避免在酸性、 碱性及含有机溶剂的气氛中使用。也避免在粉尘较大的环境中使用。为正确反映欲测 空间的湿度,还应避免将传感器安放在离墙壁太*或空气不流通的死角处。如果被测 的房间太大,就应放置多个传感器。 有的湿度传感器对供电电源要求比较高,否则将影响测量精度.或者传感器之间 相互干扰,甚至无法工作。使用时应技要求提供合适的、符合精度要求的供电电源。 传感器需要进行远距离信号传输时,要注意信号的衰减问题。当传输距离超过 200m 以上时,建议选用频率输出信号的湿度传感器。 由于湿敏元件都存在一定的分散性,无论进口或国产的传感器都需逐支调试标 定。大多数在更换湿敏元件后需要重新调试标定,对于测量精度比较高的湿度传感器 尤其重要。

3.5 温度传感器

温度是一个基本的物理量,自然界中的一切过程无不与温度密切相关。温度传感 器是最早开发,应用最广的一类传感器。温度传感器的市场份额大大超过了其他的传 感器。从 17 世纪初人们开始利用温度进行测量。在半导体技术的支持下,本世纪相

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of ef fectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal system. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic safety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

14
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c and full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze relat ed transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nist ic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otect ion, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on syst em, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nag ement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk pre ve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, f ull play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

继开发了半导体热电偶传感器、PN 结温度传感器和集成温度传感器。与之相应,根 据波与物质的相互作用规律,相继开发了声学温度传感器、红外传感器和微波传感器。
温度传感器有四种主要类型:热电偶、热敏电阻、电阻温度检测器(RTD)和 IC 温度传感器。IC 温度传感器又包括模拟输出和数字输出两种类型。
接触式温度传感器的检测部分与被测对象有良好的接触,又称温度计。 温度计通过传导或对流达到热*衡,从而使温度计的示值能直接表示被测对象的 温度。一般测量精度较高。在一定的测温范围内,温度计也可测量物体内部的温度分 布。但对于运动体、小目标或热容量很小的对象则会产生较大的测量误差,常用的温 度计有双金属温度计、玻璃液体温度计、压力式温度计、电阻温度计、热敏电阻和温 差电偶等。它们广泛应用于工业、农业、商业等部门。在日常生活中人们也常常使用 这些温度计。随着低温技术在国防工程、空间技术、冶金、电子、食品、医药和石油 化工等部门的广泛应用和超导技术的研究,测量 120K 以下温度的低温温度计得到了 发展,如低温气体温度计、蒸汽压温度计、声学温度计、顺磁盐温度计、量子温度计、 低温热电阻和低温温差电偶等。低温温度计要求感温元件体积小、准确度高、复现性 和稳定性好。利用多孔高硅氧玻璃渗碳烧结而成的渗碳玻璃热电阻就是低温温度计的 一种感温元件,可用于测量 1.6~300K 范围内的温度。

3.6 喷灌系统

利用机械和动力设备,使水通过喷头(或喷嘴)射至空中,以雨滴状态降落田间 的灌溉方法。喷灌设备由进水管、抽水机、输水管、配水管和喷头(或喷嘴)等部分 组成,可以是固定的或移动的。具有节省水量、不破坏封结构、调节地面气候且不受 地形限制等优点. 3.6.1 喷灌的特点
a.省水:由于喷灌可以控制喷水量和均匀性,避免产生地面径流和深层渗漏损 失,使水的利用率大为提高,一般比地面灌溉节省水量 3O 一 50%,省水还意味着节 省动力,降低灌水成本。
b.省工:喷灌便于实现机械化、自动化,可以大量节省劳动力。由于取消了田间 的输水沟渠,不仅有利于机械作业,而且大大减少了由间劳动量。喷灌还可以结合施 入化肥和农药,又可以省去不少劳动量,据统计,喷灌所需的劳动量仅为地面灌溉的 l/5。

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

15
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze related transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full commu nicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nistic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otection, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on system, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nagement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n finan cial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk preve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, full play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

c.提高土地利用率:采用喷灌时,无需田间的灌水沟渠和畦埂,比地面灌溉更 能充分利用耕地,提高土地利用率,一般可增加耕种面积 7 一 10%。
d.增产:喷灌便于严格控制土壤水分,使土壤湿度维持在作物生长最适宜的范围。 而且在喷灌时能冲掉植物茎叶上尘土,有利于植物呼吸和光合作用。另外喷灌对土壤 不产生冲刷等破坏作用,从而保持土壤的团粒结构,使土壤疏松多孔,通气性好,因 而有利于增产, 特别是蔬菜增产效果更为明显。
e.适应性强:喷灌对各种地形适应性强,不需要像地面灌溉那样整*土地,在 坡地和起伏不*的地面均可进行喷灌。特别是在土层薄、透水性强的沙质土,非常适 合采用喷灌。此外,喷灌不仅适应所有大田作物,而且对于各种经济作物、蔬菜、草 场都可以获得很好的经济效果。 喷灌具有好多优点,但是也有缺点。主要是投资费 用大,就目前条件移动式喷灌系统最便宜,亩投资也需要 20-50 元/亩。另外是受风 速和气候的影响大,当风速大于 5.5 米/秒时 (相当于 4 级风),就能吹散雨滴,降 低喷灌均匀性,不宜进行喷灌。其次,在气候十分干燥时,蒸发损失增大,也会降低效 果。 3.6.2 喷头的选型与布置
1.喷头的选型 选择喷头时,除需考虑其本身的性能,如喷头的工作压力、流量、射程、组合喷 灌强度、喷洒扇形角度可否调节之外,还必须同时考虑诸如土壤的允许喷灌强度、地 块大小形状、水源条件、用户要求等因素。另外,同一工程或一个工程的同一轮灌组 中,最好选用一种型号或性能相似的喷头,以便于灌溉均匀度的控制和整个系统的运 行管理。在已建项目中,有的为片面追求水景效果,安装了各种性能截然不同的喷头, 致使灌溉均匀度无法保证。选择喷头时需特别注意的是,灌溉系统不是喷泉,其目的 是为了弥补植物需水时空上的不足,而不是创作人工水景。因此,只能在首先满足需 水的前提下,尽量照顾到景观效果。 此类喷头品种繁多,按射程分,有 0.6~5.8 米的小射程喷头,4.3~9.1 米的中 小射程喷头,8.5~15.9 米的中等射程喷头,20 米以上的大射程喷头;按喷洒类型分, 有散射喷头,射线喷头,旋转喷头,射线旋转喷头;按使用场合分,有园林喷头,高 尔夫喷头等等。这些喷头均可在加压喷水时自动弹出地面,而灌水停止时又缩入地面, 不会影响园林景观上的机械作业。

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of ef fectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal system. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic safety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

16
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c and full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze relat ed transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nist ic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otect ion, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on syst em, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nag ement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk pre ve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, f ull play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

1.1 小射程喷头一般为非旋转散射式喷头,如 PROS 系列、PS 系列以及 INST 系 列。这些喷头的弹出高度有 50mm、75mm、100mm、150mm 和 300mm,可选配喷洒形式 繁多或可调角度的喷嘴,喷灌强度较大。不但适用于小块灌溉,也可用于灌木、绿篱 的灌水和洗尘。这类喷头的喷嘴大多为“匹配灌溉强度喷嘴”,即无论全圆喷洒,还 是半圆或 90 度及其他角度,其灌溉强度基本相同。这种特性对保证系统的喷洒均匀 度极为有利。
1.2 中小射程喷头多为旋转喷头,如 SRM、PGJ 系列齿轮驱动顶部调节喷头,射 程为 4.3~11.3 米,弹出高度有 100mm、150mm、300mm。这种喷头适用于中型面积绿 地和灌木、花卉的喷灌。
特别的如,MP 系列地埋射线旋转喷头,射程 3~9 米,以其独特的喷洒方式,和 由此而来的不可比拟的节水特性,尤其适合坡地和新植喷洒。
1.3 中等射程喷头多为旋转喷头,如亨特 I-20、 PGP 系列地埋旋转喷头。这些 喷头适用于中型面积绿地的灌溉。弹出高度有 100mm 和 300mm 两种,适用于较大面积 的灌溉。其中 I-20 喷头配有止溢阀,并且可选不锈钢升降柱,顶部带有独特阀门, 可在系统运行时单独将某个喷头关闭,便于维修或更换喷嘴。
1.4 大射程喷头,如亨特 I-31、 I-35 系列、I-41 系列、I-60 系列、I-90 系列 均为旋转式齿轮驱动顶部有工具调节喷头,射程均在 20 米以上。其特点是材料强度 高,抗冲击性能好。除用于大面积灌溉外,特别适合于运动场灌溉系统。
其中 I-60 系列喷头,独有低压大射程功能,在压力为 2.8bars(0.28Mp)时, 射程可达 18.9 米。特别适合低压系统或者旧系统改造项目。
在各种射程的喷头中,均可选择“止溢型”喷头。带止溢功能的喷头一般安装在 地形起伏较大的喷灌系统中的地形较低的部位,可有效防止当灌水停止时管道中的水 从低位喷头溢出,影响喷头周围的正常生长。
土壤的允许喷灌强度是影响喷头选型的主要因素之一。喷灌强度是指单位时间内 喷洒在地面上的水深。我们一般考虑的是组合喷灌强度,因为灌溉系统基本上都是由 多个喷头组合起来同时工作。对于喷灌强度的要求是,水落到地面后能立即渗入土壤 而不出现积水和地面径流,即要求喷头的组合喷灌强度(ρ 组合)应小于等于土壤 的水入渗率。各类土壤的允许喷灌强度(ρ 允许)的参考值见下表:

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

17
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze related transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full commu nicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nistic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otection, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on system, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nagement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n finan cial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk preve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, full play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

土壤类别
砂土 壤砂土 砂壤土 壤土 粘土

表 3.1 各类土壤的允许喷灌强度(mm/h) 允许喷灌强度
20 15 12 10 8

喷头组合喷灌强度的计算公式为:ρ 组合(mm/h)=1000q/A 式中:q 为单喷头的流量(m3/h);A 为单喷头的有效控制面积(m2)。 另外,土壤的允许喷灌强度随着地形坡度的增加而显著减小。如坡度大于 12%时, 土壤的允许喷灌强度将降低 50%以上。因此,对于地形起伏的工程,在喷头选型时需 格外注意。 2.喷头的布置 喷灌系统中喷头的布置包括喷头的组合形式、喷头沿支管上的间距及支管间距 等。喷头布置的合理与否,直接关系到整个系统的灌水质量。 喷头的组合形式主要取决于地块形状以及风的影响,一般为矩形和三角形,或为 其特例正方形和正三角形。矩形或正方形布置,适用于地块规则,边缘成直角的条件。 这种形式设计简便,容易做到使各条支管的流量比较均衡;三角形或正三角形布置, 适用于不规则地块,或地块边界为开放式,即使喷洒范围超出部分边界也影响不大的 情况。这种布置抗风能力较强,喷洒均匀度要高于矩形或正方形,同时所用喷头的数 量相对较少,但不易作到使各条支管的流量均衡。有时地块形状十分复杂,或地块当 中有*铮古缤返淖楹闲问轿还嬖蛐巍5诙嗍绻嘞低持校删×坎捎谜 形或正三角形布置。 2.1 正方形布置 正方形布置时,喷头沿支管上的间距与支管间距相等,但对角喷头之间的距离是 支管间距的 1.41 倍。考虑到风的影响,推荐喷头间距为喷头射程(R)的 0.9-1.1 倍,见下表:

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of ef fectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal system. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic safety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

18
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c and full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze relat ed transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nist ic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otect ion, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on syst em, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nag ement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk pre ve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, f ull play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

风速(km/h) 0-5 6-11 12-20

表 3.2 正方形布置
正方形最大间距 1.1R 1.0R 0.9R

2.2 正三角形布置

正三角形布置时,各个喷头之间的距离相等,但支管间距为喷头间距的 0.866

倍。考虑到风的影响,推荐喷头间距为喷头射程(R)的 1.0-1.2 倍,见下表:

表 3.3 正三角形布置

风速(km/h)

正三角形最大间距

0-5

1.2R

6-11

1.1R

12-20

1.0R

在喷头布置完毕后,应根据实际布置结果对系统的组合喷灌强度进行校核。特别 是在地块的边角区域,因喷头往往是半圆或 90 度而不是全圆喷洒,若选配的喷嘴与 地块中间全圆喷洒的喷头相同,则该区域内的喷灌强度势必大大超过地块中间。所以, 为保证系统良好的喷洒均匀度,一般安装在边角的喷头须配置比地块中间的喷头小 2-3 个级别的喷嘴。 3.6.3 喷灌系统的施工安装
喷灌系统施工安装的总的要求是,严格按设*校匦胄薷纳杓剖庇ο日鞯蒙 计单位同意并经主管部门批准。涉及到有关建筑物的施工,应符合现行规范的要求, 如《给排水建筑物施工及验收规范》、《地下防水工程施工及验收规范》等。针对喷灌 系统的特点,在其施工与安装时,应注意以下问题:
(一)在已有的喷灌地块内施工,除尽量保护现有喷灌外,要特别注意管沟弃土 的处理。弃土须分层放置,埋管时须按与开挖时相反的顺序分层回填,以保证沿管线 种植层内的土壤与原有土壤一致。

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

19
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze related transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full commu nicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nistic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otection, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on system, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nagement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n finan cial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk preve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, full play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

(二)在干管和每条支管上应安装放水装置,以便于冲洗管道以及冬季防冻。即 使在无冻害的南方地区,在非灌溉季节一般也应放空管道,防止水长期滞留在管道中 产生微生物,附着在管壁和喷头上影响喷灌效果。放水装置除常见的闸阀、球阀外, 还有自动泄水阀,可在灌水停止后自动排出管道中的水。
(三)对于系统压力变化或地形起伏较大的情况,支管阀门处应安装压力调节设 备,如亨特公司生产的与电磁阀相配套的 Accu-Set 型压力调节器,使支管进口处压 力均衡,保证系统的喷洒均匀度。另外,在必要的管段还应安装进排气阀、泄压阀等, 用以保护系统的安全。
(四)为便于临时取水,或对喷灌不易控制的边角地段进行人工灌溉,在主管道 上一般需安装一定数量的快速取水阀(方便体),如亨特 HQV 型快速取水阀。这种快 速取水阀与所配套的钥匙配合使用,插入钥匙,阀门即可自动开启供水;若要停止灌 水,只需取下钥匙,阀门会自动关闭。
(五)地埋式喷头的安装 1、安装前须对喷头进行预置。可调喷洒扇形角度的喷头,出厂时大多设置在 180 度,因此在安装前应根据实际地形对喷洒扇形角度的要求,把喷头调节到所需角度。 2、喷头的顶部应与最后的地面相*。这就要求在安装喷头时喷头顶部要低于松 土地面,为以后的地面沉降留有余地;或在地面不再沉降时再安装喷头。 3、喷头与支管的连接,最好采用交接接头(Swing Joint),也称千秋架。如亨 特的 SJ-512 千秋架、SJ-712 千秋架,可有效防止由机械冲击,如剪草机作业或人为 活动而引起的管道和喷头损坏。同时,采用铰接接头,便于施工时调整喷头的安装高 度。 4、在管理不便的地区,可安装具有一定防盗性能的喷头。

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of ef fectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal system. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic safety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

20
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c and full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze relat ed transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nist ic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otect ion, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on syst em, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nag ement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk pre ve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, f ull play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

结论
通过此次毕业设计,让我从新学*了大学里的一些专业课程,并且从中学到了很 多新的知识对 PLC 控制有了更深一层的认识。即有对以前知识的总结,又有对新领域 新的知识的摄取。
本系统可以提高温室的自动化控制和管理水* ,充分发挥温室农业的高效性 , 实现对温室生产时各个参数的分散控制和集中管理。特点主要体现在:
1)群控化管理:即可实现对同一地区的多个温室集中统一管理。 2)可靠性高:该系统实现管理与直接控制分开 ,各子系统相对独立 ,分别完成不 同的控制功能 ,即使系统某部分工作异常 ,也不影响各个温室控制系统的正常工作。 3)易扩展性:随着温室农业的发展 ,控制环节的增多 ,该系统在结构和功能方面 可方便地进行扩展。 4)经济性好:该系统成本低廉、 性能稳定 ,经济效益显著 ,符合中国目前的国 情 ,具有诱人的应用前景。

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

21
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze related transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full commu nicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nistic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otection, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on system, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nagement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n finan cial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk preve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, full play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

参考文献

1 郑萍,潘世永. 一种高性价比的 PLC 与上位机的通信实现[J]电子技术应用, 2001,(04) .
2 金钰. 工业控制计算机在自动化温室控制中的应用 [J]工业控制计算机, 2000,(01) .
3 卢秋红,张国伟,颜国正. 动态数据交换在工业自动控制组态系统中的应用[J] 工业仪表与自动化装置, 2001,(06) .
4 康 伟 , 郑 正 奇 . Windows 下 实 时 数 据 采 集 的 实 现 [J] 计 算 机 应 用 研 究 , 2001,(03) .
5 孙兵. 工业 PC 与 PLC 结合的在线自动检测系统实现[J]制造业自动化, 2000,(06) .
6 苏初旺,周丛钜,王乃康,盘朝奉,杨华星,龚耀涛. 桂西北地区沼气温室(大棚) 一体化结构优化设计[J]森林工程, 2004,(01) .
7 杨颂,邱云超,费敏锐. Windows 环境下实现串行通信的 3 种常用方法及比较[J] 自动化与仪表, 2000,(04)
8 贾宏宇,施仁. 大型通用工控软件设计研究[J]信息与控制, 2001,(01) . 9 李道霖 电气控制与 plc 原理及应用(西门子系列) 10 工业以太网 11 大温室温湿度远程监控系统 12 袁振荣. MELSEC—K 可编程控制器及其应用[J]. 龙岩师专学报, 2000,(03) 13 鲁志康. 以 PLC 为核心的自动监测系统的设计方法[J]. 绍兴文理学院学报, 1999,(05) 14 李红光. 可编程控制器编程的几个误区[J]. 常州信息职业技术学院学报, 2003,(02) 15 蔡晓东. PLC 在草坪喷灌控制系统中的应用[J]. 温州职业技术学院学报, 2004,(02) 16 柳青, 杨红. PLC 在产品自动检验系统中的应用[J]. 湖南工业职业技术学院 学报, 2003,(01) 17 温室环境调控自动化系统设计 The Automation of Greenhouse Environment Control 作者:吴洪涛, 期刊 森林工程 FOREST ENGINEERING 2006 年 第 02 期 18 V.J.Vandoren. The Evolution of PLC-Based Loop Control .Control Engineering. 1995,4211, 42(11) :57-62 . 19 MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC CORPORATION. FX Series Programmable Controllers Programming Manual .2000, . 20 karl H,Michael T. Programming Industrial Automation System .Benlin

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of ef fectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal system. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic safety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

22
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c and full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze relat ed transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full communicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nist ic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otect ion, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on syst em, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nag ement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n financial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk pre ve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, f ull play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2001, . 21 Hu W,Schroeder M, Starr A.G. A knowledge-based real-time
diagnosticsystem for PLC controlled manufacturing systems .IEEE SMC 99 Conference Proceedings. 1999, .

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of eff ectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal syst em. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic saf ety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

23
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c an d full of

We will conti nue t o improve the company's i nternal control system, a nd stea dy improveme nt in ability to manage a nd control, optimize busi nes s proces ses, to e ns ure smooth proce sse s, responsibilities i n pla ce; to furt her stre ngthen i nternal controls, play a control post indepe nde nt oversig ht role of evaluation com plying wit h third -party res ponsi bility; t o actively make use of inter nal audit tools dete ct potential management, streamli ne, sta ndardi ze related transacti ons, strengt heni ng operations in a ccorda nce with law. De epe ning t he information manageme nt to ensure full commu nicati on "zero resista nce".

To consta ntly perfect ERP, and BFS++, and PI, a nd M IS, and SCM , information system bas ed constructi on, f ull integration information system, achieve d information resource s share d; to ex pand Portal system application of brea dth a nd dept h, play i nformation sy stem on e nterprise of Assista nt role; t o perfect daily run mainte nance operation of records, promote problem reasons a nalysi s and system ha ndover; to stre ngthe ning BFS++, and ERP,

and SCM, technology a ppli cation of training, im prove empl oyees a ppli cation information system of ca pacity a nd level . Huma nistic care to e nsur e "zero."

To strengthe ning H umanitie s care, continues to foster compa ny wind clea r, and gas are, a nd heart Shun of culture atmosphere; stre ngthe ning love hel ped trapped, care difficult empl oyees; carried out style a ctivities, ri ch employees life; strengthe ning health and l abour pr otection, organization care er healt h medical, control career against; conti nues t o implementati on psychol ogical war ning preventi on system, traini ng empl oyees he alth of chara cter, a nd sta ble of mood a nd e nterpris ing of attitude, create d friendly fraternity of Humanitie s environment. To stre ngthe n risk manageme nt, ensure t hat the busi ness of "zero risk". To strengthene d busine ss plans ma nagement, w ill busi ness busi nes s pla ns cover to all level , ensure the busi nes s ca n control i n control; t o cl ose concer n finan cial, a nd coal ele ctric li nkage, and e nergy-savi ng scheduling, nati onal poli cy trends, strengt heni ng track, a ctive shoul d;

to implementation State-owne d asset s method, further spe cification busi ness fina nci al management ; to perfect ri sk tube control system, a chieve d risk recogniti on, a nd meas ure, a nd as sessme nt, and report, and control feedback of closed ring ma nagement, impr ove risk preve ntion ca pacit y.

To further standardiz e trading, a nd strive t o achieve "accordi ng to law, standardize a nd fair." I nnovati on of performance management, t o ensure that potentia l employee s "zero fly". To stre ngthe n performance management, pr oce ss control , enhance empl oyee evaluati on a nd level s of effective communication t o improve performance management . To furt her quantify and refine empl oyee standards ... Work, full play party, a nd bra nch, and members i n "five type Enterpri se" construction in the of core r ole, and fighting fortress r ole and pi one er model r ole; to continues to stre ngthe ning "four good" leaders hip construction, full play levels cadre s in enter prise devel opment i n the

致谢

附图 1 灌溉系统安装图

2 of backbone ba ckbone rol e; to full stre ngthe ning member s yout h work, full play yout h empl oyees in company devel opme nt in the of force role ; to improve i nde pe nde nt Commis sion against corruption work level, strengthe ning on e nterpris e busine ss key link of ef fectiveness monitore d. , And maintain stabilit y. To further stre ngthe n publicity a nd e ducation, improve the overall legal system. We must strengt hen safety management, esta blish a nd im prove the e ducation, s upervi sion, and evaluati on as one of the traffic safety management mecha nism.

confi dence. Fut ure devel opme nt opport unitie s, we more exciti ng fight more spirite d.

24
Employees, let us together a cross 201 3 full of challenge s and opport unitie s, to create a gree n, low -cost operation, full of humane care of a worl d-clas s power generati on company a nd w ork har d! The occa s ion of the S pring Festival, my sincere wis h that you and the families of the staff in the new yea r, good health, happy, happy

To conscie ntiously s um up the Oly mpic se curity control s, pr omoting i ntegrated management to a higher level, hig her standards, a hig her level of devel opme nt. Empl oyees, today is lunar cal endar on Decem ber 24, t he ox Bell is about to ri ng, at this time of year, we cle arly feel the pulse of the XX power generati on company t o flouri sh, to more clearly he ar XX power generati on compa nies mature a nd symmetry breathi ng. Recalli ng past one a not her acr oss a raili ng, we are e nthusiasti c and full of


相关推荐

最新更新

猜你喜欢